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The melt flows out of the ladle and into the tundish, a material buffer which links the discontinuous secondary metallurgy with the continuous casting process. An important task of the tundish is to separate non-metallic particles from the melt. Here, a simulation has big advantages as compared to water modeling. Approved numerical two-phase models allow the direct comparison of the separation efficiency of different tundish designs. Moreover buoyancy effects can be taken into account. Undesired and so-called dead water regions can be identified and avoided by re-design of the interior refractory contour.

60 t single-strand tundish with different ladle inlet locations

Pathlines of non-metallic particles

Temperature distribution

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  • Tundish flow optimization with respect to size, shape, wear, baffles
  • Prediction of  mixing time


  • Mixing and homogenization time
  • Identification of inactive flow regions (dead water)
  • Regions of prolonging refractory wear
  • Separation of non-metallic inclusions
  • Temperature stratification