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Atmospheric processes

Secondary Metallurgy

Ladle Furnace

The ladle furnace is perfectly suited as a buffer unit to compensate for temperature losses or time delays that occur between tapping and casting.

The ladle furnace serves as an electric heating unit, primarily to set the required steel temperature. In addition, it offers the possibility of implementing various metallurgical functions such as slag management, desulphurization, alloying, fine adjustment of the steel analysis and homogenization outside the melting unit in the ladle.

The ladle furnaces from SMS group are characterized by modern lid designs, which above all reduce the absorption of nitrogen from the ambient air. Both the variant with one treatment position (optionally with one or two ladle cars) and the one with double position meet the respective productivity requirements.

More than 200 plants for liquid steel weights of up to 400 tons demonstrate the superiority of the ladle furnace over other concepts.

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Benefits

  • Rapid and reproducible heating of liquid steel
  • Adjustment of an optimized slag composition for improved purity
  • Intensive metal-slag reaction possible, for example for deep desulphurization
  • Low nitrogen absorption
  • Reduced tapping temperatures on the melting unit enable energy savings
  • Rescue of returns from the continuous casting plant
  • Reliable sampling through good mixing
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Chemical Heating Station

The characteristic feature of a chemical heating station from SMS group is a refractory-coated bell, which is immersed in the bath during treatment and typically rotates. The treatment inside the bell is slag-free and takes place in an almost inert atmosphere, so that only minimal gas is absorbed from the ambient air. Particularly in the case of additives with a strong affinity for oxygen, this significantly increases the yield – i. e. the proportion of the added allyoing element that is acutally present in die finished alloy.

To increase the steel temperature, oxygen is blown through a lance and aluminium is added at the same time. The alumino-thermal reaction enables particularly high heating rates.

Benefits:

  • Very fast heating of the liquid steel
  • Very high alloy yield, especially of oxygen-affine elements
  • Minimized nitrogen uptake
  • Reduced tapping temperatures on the melting unit allow energy savings
  • Rescue of returns from the continuous caster
  • Reliable sampling through good mixing
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Ladle Treatment Station

The ladle treatment plants from SMS group are installed in EAF and BOF steelmaking plants between the melting and continuous casting facilities. Many secondary metallurgical treatment steps can be carried out there – without having to use capital-intensive equipment that might take up even more space.

The ladle treatment enables various metallurgical treatment steps, such as

  • Desulphurization by adding synthetic slag and intensive mixing, if necessary by flushing lances or by powder injection
  • Deoxidation by addition of aluminium, silicon, etc.
  • Adjustment of the chemical composition by lumpy alloy material or by wire feeding
  • Homogenization of liquid steel by means of bottom purging or lance stirring
  • Improvement of castability
  • Temperature adjustment by addition of cooling agents
  • Reliable sampling due to good mixing

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